Effects of Type-2 Diabetes and How to measure levels of Diabetes (Part 2 of 3)



In Part-1 of this series covered what Type-2 diabetes is.  Diabetes is a chronic diseases and if not controlled properly, adverse effects of this disease could be severe. Example of such effects are given below.

Risk of Stroke
Loss of Consciousness
Extreme Thirst
Visual Disturbance (could lead to blindness -
Sweet smelling breadth
Risk of heart disease
High blood pressure
Gastroparesis (Delayed emptying of food from stomach)
Fatigue and lack of energy
Pancreas Malfunction
Excessive Urination
Ketoacidois (Ketones which are toxic acids in body)
Protein in the urine (Damaged in kidney)
Dry and cracked skin
Damaged Blood Vessels
Nerve damage
Foot problems.

In Part-3 of this series, we will discuss what medications, diets and exercise can help control the disease.

In this part (Part-2), we focus on how does one measure the severity of diabetes.

Glucose in blood is measured and reported as milligrams per deciliter. A milligram (mg) is one-thousandth of a gram and a deciliter (dL) is metric unit of capacity equal to one tenth of a liter.

The normal value of blood sugar for a person without diabetes is 70–99 mg/dl measured after fasting and normal blood sugar 2 hours after meals less than 140 mg/dl.

Hemoglobin A1c

When a person’s bloodsugar level is above the normal, the person is considered diabetes.Whether the diabetes is type-1 or type-2 shall be decided whether that pancreas is producing enough insulin or not.

The normal range of blood sugar level is 70-99 mg/dl. Blood sugar level above 99 mg/dL is hyperglycemia (diabetes) and below 70 mg/dL is hypoglycemia.

When glucose (sugar) enters the blood, it binds to the protein in the red blood cells. This binding creates “glycated hemoglobin”. The more sugar in the blood, the more glycated hemoglobin the A1C test measures the percentage of your red blood cells that have sugar-coated hemoglobin. The A1c is an average of what your blood sugar levels have been over the last 3-month period (average life of a red cell is 3 months). In general, the higher your A1C number, the higher your likelihood of diabetes complications. Higher A1C means there is too much sugar in your blood and your body isn’t absorbing it.

Normal for person without diabetes: Less than 5.7%
Official ADA recommendation for someone with diabetes: Less than 7.0%


A1C level Estimated average blood sugar level
5 percent 97 mg/dL (5.4 mmol/L)
6 percent 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L)
7 percent 154 mg/dL (8.5 mmol/L)
8 percent 183 mg/dL (10.2 mmol/L)
9 percent 212 mg/dL (11.8 mmol/L)
10 percent 240 mg/dL (13.3 mmol/L)
11 percent 269 mg/dL (14.9 mmol/L)
12 percent 298 mg/dL (16.5 mmol/L)
13 percent 326 mg/dL (18.1 mmol/L)
14 percent 355 mg/dL (19.7 mmol/L)

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